Data Handling


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What is DATA HANDLING in maths?

Data Handling is a process of analyzing the data to get specific data so that we have a scope of improvement in that particular area.

This is very useful topic and shall be practiced thoroughly, as we need this throughout our life as we shall be dealing with various data handling in all walks of life. Data handling, as name suggests is handling data in a more systematic and organised way.

Examples of Data handling

All data, let it relate to sports results, data bases, temperature reports or a classic example is school report cards/ progress card is the best way to know the overall performance of the school.

Furthermore data can be presented or rather expressed in many forms such as tables, charts, graphs pie diagrams etc.

For instance, a small data table of school progress report of some students A, B C, D & E and the marks they got out of 100 in four subjects Maths, Science English and Social. Name of student Maths marks Science marks Social marks English marks
1 A 98 94 65 95
2 B 97 97 66 66
3 C 96 96 67 57
4 D 95 97 92 58
5 E 94 98 93 59

From the above table school teachers came to some of the below conclusions.

  • Over school performance is very good in maths and science subjects as students got more than 90 % marks.
  • There is scope of improvement in student marks for social and English. This indicates social and English subjects need to be concentrated more.
  • Also, students A and B scored very good marks in maths, science and English and there is scope of improvement in social. From this table student A understands that he needs to work more in social subject.
  • Similarly, Students D and E scored good in maths, science and social and they need improvement in English subject.

Basic Techniques of Data Handling

Average / Arithmetic Mean

Average or Arithmetic mean is the average performance of all the subjects. Say for example Student A has high marks in maths and science and English but lowest marks in social marks.

Whats the average that student A has scored. We can calculate it with following formula.


Range is the difference of highest and Lowest marks scored.

In the above table student D scored 95 97,92 & 58 in maths, science, social and English respectively.

Highest – Lowest = Range i.e. 97 – 58 = 39 marks is the Range of marks for student D.


Mode means, in this case is the maximum times same marks scored by student. Let’s understand Mode with marks of student C

Student C scored marks of 96 ,96 ,67 and 57 in maths, science, social and English respectively.

Here we can see that student C got 96 marks twice in maths and science and once 67 marks in Social and once 57 marks in English. The mode of marks for student C is 96 because it occurred more no of times than the other two subject marks.

Now, check student B score 97 marks in maths, 97 marks in science and 66 marks in social and 66 marks in english. Here 97 marks are scored two times and 66 marks are also scored two times, means 97 and 66 are mode for marks of student B.


Median is the middle number or middle portion of data after arranging the data in ascending or descending order

Lets say we have following numbers

1 ,2, 3, 4 ,5. As the numbers are already arranged in ascending order, the median of these numbers is 3 as 3 divides the numbers into lowest numbers 1, 2 and highest numbers 4,5 when compared to 3 which is neither lower than smallest numbers nor greater then highest numbers

In addition to above, say we have even count of numbers, for odd count we can easily find the median. 6,5,4,3,2,1 – The median shall be the average of the middle numbers in case if even count. So the median here is 4+3/ 2 = 3.5 which is decimal that comes in between 4 and 3 of number line.

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